How to promote the “made in China” strategic upgrade process?

Since & other;Five-year & throughout;时期以来,我国的经济增长进入新常态,经济增速表现出逐步回落的态势。In 2015, officially promulgated “China 2025”, means that the next 10 years & other;Made in China & throughout;Strategic upgrade has been on the agenda.File explicitly pointed out that to develop a new generation of information, aerospace and so on ten big key industries, and gradually promote the development of Chinese manufacturing to service, service to the production.The industrial development of the new policy is put forward, it is bound to be adapted to the current national industrial economic environment, of course is also an inevitable choice for the new economic conditions.On the one hand, global industrial transformation and upgrading trend, manufacturing industry into a pillar industry of economy in developed countries, our country is no longer pure pursuit of GDP growth, but turn policy goals for the adjustment of economic structure, promote industrial upgrading.Along with our country into a new normal phase, & other;Made in China & throughout;Strategic upgrade more in line with the inherent law of development and innovation of industrial structure, and more consistent with the new normal economic development trend of our country.On the other hand, the new economic environment, regional unbalanced development of Chinese manufacturing industry, labor advantage of demographic dividend gradually weakened, highlighted the problem such as pressure increases, industrial structure is bound to affect & other;Made in China & throughout;的发展。In order to alleviate the phenomenon, should draw lessons from the developed country industrialization strategy, fully understand and analyze the running benefit of traditional industry in China, in accordance with the “made in China 2025” puts forward the objectives and requirements, combined with industrial foundation and intrinsic factor, further promote & other;Made in China & throughout;战略升级进程。Economy under the new normal & other;Made in China & throughout;Strategy to upgrade the industrial foundation and intrinsic motivation industrial foundation, China has become the world’s largest commodity production and trade center.Commodity production scale of a country is directly related to the country’s merchandise trade scale, thus affecting the country’s commodities in the global industry developing status and value in the global industry value chain.Since the late 1970 s, change traditional commodity production and trade in our country the present situation of the smaller, start with the reform and open policy the power, enhance the global competitiveness of manufacturing industry.根据有关数据显示,我国上世纪80年代的商品出口规模仅为180亿美元,所占比例还不到全球总的商品出口规模的1%,但是同一时期德国、日本等发达国家的商品出口规模却分别达到了我国出口规模的10.65倍和7.20倍。After 30 years of reform and opening up, China’s commodity production and trade scale continues to expand, and growing in the position in the global industrial division.截止到2015年,我国商品出口规模达到14.14万亿元,并且贸易顺差规模持续扩大,成为名副其实的商品生产和贸易中心。In addition, the advantage of scale in manufacturing in our country is increasingly significant.Manufacturing as the main body of the national economy, in the context of rapid economic growth, rapidly increasing scale of manufacturing industry.In terms of trade division of labor, in the early 1980 s China’s export manufacturing scale is only $8.7 billion, accounting for 0.8% of the total amount of global manufacturing exports, with Germany, Japan, the United States and other developed countries.In recent years in the demographic dividend and bonus under the positive role of globalization, the manufacturing industry has made great development in our country, as early as in 2013, the proportion of China’s manufacturing export scale has gone up by 0.8% in the 80 s to 17.53%, while many developed countries manufacturing export proportion reduced year by year.At present, the scale of the manufacturing industry in China has overtaken the United States, Germany, Japan and other countries, the scale is very significant.Inner motivation aspect, the first large, weak industrial structure in our country, the imbalance of regional development.Trade surplus countries is the world’s biggest manufacturing industry in our country at present stage, scale advantage, but overall, manufacturing is still relatively low level of industrialization, modernization level is not high, the development of high-end manufacturing remains in the doldrums, the formation of the current organization big and weak status of manufacturing industry in China.不仅如此,在区域发展方面,我国制造业在产业分布上呈现出不均态势,东部沿海地区是制造业的聚集地,产业集聚效应和规模效应较强,而中西部在制造业发展方面相对较弱,东西差距明显。  其次,我国人口红利优势逐步减弱。从人口自然增长趋势来看,我国人口增长的阶段性特征明显。In the early 1960 s, to remove the three years of natural disasters, the rapid growth of the population birth and death rates in our country makes children’s rapid population growth, which resulted in increased population deficit.In 60-90 – s of the last century, further increases in Labour force, coefficient of raising children and the elderly population is relatively low, thus forming the low cost of labor, demographic dividend advantages highlighted.Since the 1990 s labor reduce population growth, population of demographic dividend gradually into debt, the original advantage of demographic dividend is gradually weakened.Again, the industrial structure increase pressure.The current is affected by the economic new normal, the evolution of industrial structure and economic environment with high consistency.换言之,经济新常态所带来的人口红利优势减弱、经济增长回缓以及区域发展失衡等也都制约着制造业产业结构的优化和升级。At present, the pattern of the industrial structure gradually shift is dominated by the tertiary industry, the industrial structure of manufacturing decline.By 2014, the proportion of the tertiary industry is only 48.2%, China’s manufacturing value-chain, intelligence and innovation level is not high, the phenomenon of pressure of the industrial structure.  实现经济新常态下“Made in China & throughout;战略升级,应多方发力  持续加快创新驱动转型。Under the background of current economic development stage, in order to further implement the actual demand of economic growth in China, the need to fully adapt to the phased development characteristics on the basis of productivity, change traditional investment drive, thus to innovation-driven economic growth momentum.A few years ago China’s GDP growth has brought a huge industry scale, at the same time high investment and high cost also caused the imbalance of industrial structure, industry homogeneity, industry distribution inequality problem, therefore, traditional way of investment to economic growth and can not adapt to the present and the future social and economic development needs.当前我国制造业正在向智能化和创新化进军,其产业投资形式也应转变为以创新投资为驱动的方式。通过市场化培育产业创新主体,充分利用市场、政府、企业提升产业发展的创新力。  不断优化产业价值链。In terms of industry value chain in our country, the market allocation of resources on the basis of perfecting, requires the optimization of industrial value chain, and refactoring.First of all, the positive remodeling industry value chain.按照区域发展的新要求,深切落实振兴东北老工业基地、西部大开发等政策,不断推动自由贸易区、“One Belt And One Road & throughout;等新经济政策的实施,从而实现我国产业空间布局的重构,以此来完善整个产业价值链,保证区域内产业经济的利益协调。其次,积极融入国际产业分工。通过改进我国加工贸易布局、创新加工贸易方式,实现我国产业附加值和国际制造业地位的提升。  推动制造业服务业融合。现阶段,产业边界的模糊以及产业分工的深入,为产业融合发展造就了必然之势。制造业的智能化、服务化、信息化发展,需要其与服务业的深入融合。2012年我国第三产业所占比例首次超过第一、二产业,由此形成了第三产业为主导的经济增长核心力量。服务业的不断进步,也为制造业的服务化发展提供了机遇。但是我国服务业水平还比较落后,尤其是在生产性服务业发展方面优势并不明显,如缺乏创新知识、核心技术等,这对实现制造业产业战略升级比较不利,因此应推动制造业与服务业融合,打造生产性服务业。  充分发挥区域经济政策的产业效应。在经济体制不断改革和深化的今天,区域经济政策由均衡向非均衡的转变是一种必然结果,使得产业资源配置成功转变为以市场为主导的配置结构,打破资源产业以及区域间的流动壁垒,同时兼顾经济增长和区域发展的双重目标,提升区域统筹的实效性,实现区域产业经济利益的最大化。因此,充分发挥区域经济政策的产业效应,是推动制造业转型升级的重要路径之一。通过产业政策的区域化、区域政策的产业化,加强区域之间的经济联系,如建立自贸区、“One Belt And One Road & throughout;经济区等。根据经济发展目标的变化,对经济政策及时进行改进,从而使得区域产业发展更加合理化。  (原标题:“Made in China & throughout;怎么走好战略升级之路) (来源:人民网)

How can’t use existing tools machining special groove structure?

In parts of the car wheel groove structure, for example, through the cutting tool graphics CAD drawing forming, set up in the Mastercam software tool, and USES the virtual machining line instead of actual processing line of groove parts turning processing;Finally finished part for the cutting plane three-dimensional scanning, processing results conform to the requirements of the model was verified.
& have spentMastercam is modern processing technology is a kind of commonly used software, it can not only create different processing methods under the standard tools, also for customers with custom tool creation way, convenient for the user according to the special requirements of work piece to create the corresponding cutting tools.In this paper, according to the requirements of the groove structure characteristics, and processed, created the forming cutter, through virtual machining line edit program, processed and verified.
& have spent1. The cutter figure drawn
& have spentAs shown in figure 1, wait for processing structure by R0.5 mm, R14mm arc and straight line 1 mm wide, if you are using a standard cutting tool processing, can only choose on both ends of the blade with arc R0.5 mm, straight line length is 1 mm, 2 mm width of the blade as a whole is the standard blade, but the blade strength is not enough, easy to damage.Combined with groove structure (see figure 1), therefore, we design a forming cutting blades, the blade cutting edge upper part forming in the groove structure R0.5 mm and 1 mm straight, the lower part is R3mm arc;In the machining process, the first half of the blade to ensure that the groove R0.5 mm and 1 mm linear modelling, the second part of turning other parts, at the same time the total blade width is 4.5 mm, can increase the whole strength of the blade.Create tool section in the CAD graphics, as shown in figure 2, and saves the file as a DWG file format.
& have spentFigure 1 a groove structure
& have spentFigure 2 forming cutting tool & have spent2. Create a tool
& have spentMastercam users can customize the cutter, but required cutting tool pattern cutter bar and the blade in a 2 d figure are located in different layers, and the tool holder and the blade must be different colors.First open the saved with Mastercam good DWG format graphical tool, as shown in figure 3 R0.5 mm circular arc of the circle as the reference point tool moving to the origin, and then to save cutter graphics for MCX file format.
& have spentFigure 3 MCX format tool
& have spentChoose in lathe processing mode, the tool management & rarr;Right-click the new cutting tool, cutting tool type choose custom, under the graphics menu, save good MCX file to import, defined as grooving cutting tool form.Mastercam provides only the single arc radius and the arc center set up, aiming at forming cutting tool can’t identify the blade width, so the blade can only choose to R0.5 mm or R3mm single circular definition, this article R0.5 mm circular arc, for example to create and save to library of tools, cutting tools list as shown in figure 4.
& have spent

& have spent

& have spentFigure 4 generating tool list
&

have spent3. Make virtual machining line
& have spentDue to cutting tool defines the arc radius and center R 0.5 mm, so when programming need to develop the virtual machining line with single arc turning R0.5 mm instead of turning the actual processing line of forming tools.Single arc R0.5 mm and R3mm both 2.5 mm from actual machining center, so the actual R3mm arc machining parts of the processing line to offset the 2.5 mm, then upward along the Y-axis translation 1 mm (the actual blade between two circular arc in the Y direction is 1 mm spacing), along the X axis of 2.5 mm to the right translation, with the original R0.5 mm tangent arc machining parts again, connection formation in R0.5 mm arc processing of virtual machining line, as shown in figure 5 arrows of the dotted line.
& have spent4. Select machining path, the generated code
& have spentIn turning mode, virtual machining line of route choice as shown in figure 5, choose to create a good cutting knife, the machining process simulation is shown in figure 6, generation processing G code is as follows:
& have spentFigure 5 virtual machining line & have spentN316 G0 Z143.3895
& have spentN318 X459.4
& have spentN320 G3 X455.4 Z145.3895 I0. K2.
& have spentN322 G1 Z147.0803
& have spentN324 G3 X459.8 Z153.6803 I11. K0.
& have spentN326 X461.4 Z154.0803 i. 8 K – 6
& have spentN328 G1 Z153.0803
& have spentN330 G2 X463.4 Z152.0803 I1. K0.
& have spentN332 G1 X475.9858
& have spent5. Verify the processing effect of
& have spentTo make cutting plane processed grooves parts, and use the three-dimensional scan cutting cross section, and compared with the original molding line, as shown in figure 7.After comparison, the processing of profile modeling conform to the requirements of the original model.
& have spentFigure 6 processing
& have spentFigure 7 groove part contrast test & have spent doing the cutting plane6. Conclusion
& have spentWith the diversification of modern mechanical structure, the specific structure of the forming tool processing is important means to ensure that products comply with the design of the original.In the light of the special groove can’t use the existing tooling structure, forming cutting tools are designed, and according to its processing, finished the processing procedure of the editor, for the forming cutting tool in the application of modern processing technology provides a solution.
& have spentAuthor: citic wear card co., LTD. (066011) in hebei liu Seedlings in the month louie Li loose, reproduced please indicate
& have spent(the original title: can’t use special groove structure of existing tooling, how processing?)(source: metal processing)

Inventory of nc machine tool spindle common fault and the solution

Spindle is referring to the machine drives the workpiece or tool axis of rotation.Machine tool spindle are usually made of the main shaft, bearing and transmission parts (gear or pulley), etc.There are mainly two kinds of high-speed spindle in the actual application:
& have spentKind of transmission of high speed motorized spindle is zero, this kind of main shaft by using the structure of the motor and spindle integration, and through the accurate dynamic balancing correction, so have good rotation accuracy and stability, but the output torque and power limit.
& have spentAnother kind is variable frequency spindle motor and mechanical transmission mechanism with the combination of the spindle.This type of spindle of the output torque and power far more, but relatively rotation accuracy and stability to almost, so for this type of spindle, how to properly design influence on the machining accuracy of machine tool spindle and its components are critical.
& have spentNc machine tool spindle common fault and the solution
& have spentA, with variable frequency spindle turn
& have spentThe cause of the problem and the processing method:
& have spent(1) caused by the failures of mechanical transmission: look for fracture belt drive whether or machine hung up the gap.
& have spent(2) the supply of the main shaft of the three-phase power supply lacks or reverse phase: check the power supply, switching of the two power cords.
& have spent(3) circuit connection error: refer to the circuit connecting the handbook, to ensure the correct attachment.
& have spent(4) the system has no corresponding spindle control signal output: the multimeter measurement system output signal, without the spindle control signal output, is the need to change IC components or send the relevant plant maintenance.
& have spent(5) system have corresponding spindle control signal output, but the power supply circuit and the control signal output circuit break or damage of components: the multimeter to check system between the spindle motor and power supply circuit, signal control circuit whether there is open circuit;Whether there is open circuit;The connection between the contact is bad contact;There is no damage to ac contactor, dc relay;Check thermal relay over-current;Check whether insurance tube burning, etc.
& have spentSecond, the spindle with frequency converter not turn
& have spentThe cause of the problem and the processing method:
& have spent(1) caused by the failures of mechanical transmission: look for fracture belt drive whether or machine hung up the gap.
& have spent(2) the supply of the main shaft of the three-phase power supply lacks: check the power supply, switching of the two power cords.
& have spent(3) numerical control system of inverter control parameters not open: consult system specification, variable frequency parameters and change.
& have spent(4) system and the inverter circuit connection error: refer to the attachment instruction system and converter, and ensure the correct attachment.
& have spent5 analog voltage output is not normal: use a multimeter to check the system output analog voltage is normal;Check the analog voltage signal wire connection is correct or poor contact, inverter receive analog voltage matches.
& have spent6 high-voltage electrical control part of the circuit or component damage: check the spindle power supply this line contact connection is reliable, line ever open circuit, dc relay is damaged, if insurance tube burn out.
& have spentCruelly inverter parameters set: frequency converter contains control mode selection, divided into the inverter control panel spindle way, way of NC system to control the main shaft, etc., if you don’t choose the NC system control mode, the spindle can’t use the system control, change the parameters;Check the related parameters setting is reasonable.
& have spent
3, without frequency conversion of the spindle (shift the spindle rotation speed is not controlled
& have spentThe cause of the problem processing method:
& have spent(1) the control signal output system without S01 – S04: look for gear shift control signal output system.If no, then the system failure, replace the IC or send for repair.
& have spent(2) the connection line fault: if the system has the shift control signal output, then check the connection line whether there is open circuit or poor contact, check whether dc relay or contactor is damaged.
& have spent(3) the spindle motor damage or short circuit: check the spindle motor.
& have spent(4) not mechanical shift: hang up yourself.
& have spentFour, spindle brake
& have spentThe cause of the problem processing method:
& have spent(1) abnormal braking circuit or high voltage components damage: check the bridge pile, fuse, ac contactor is damaged;Check whether high voltage circuit breakers.
& have spent(2) the braking time is not long enough, or the inverter braking time parameter adjustment system.
& have spentNo braking signal output (3) system: replacement of internal components or sent for repair.
& have spent(4) inverter control parameters set: refer to instruction manual frequency converter, inverter parameter set correctly.
& have spentFive, the spindle start immediately after stop
& have spentThe cause of the problem processing method
& have spentEnough time: (1) the system output pulse adjusting system of M code output time.
& have spent(2) the inverter in the running state: refer to the instruction for use of frequency converter, set up parameters.
& have spent(3) main line of control components damage: check circuit all touch the contacts are in good condition, check whether the dc relay contactor is damaged, contact not self-locking
& have spent(4) the spindle motor short circuit, causing thermal relay protection: investigate the cause of short circuit, to reset the thermal relay.
& have spent(5) the spindle control circuit without self-locking circuit, and the parameter is set to the pulse signal output, make the spindle will not operate properly, the system control spindle to control parameters instead of level control.
& have spentSix, the spindle rotation can’t stop
& have spentThe cause of the problem processing method:
& have spent(1) ac contactor or dc relay is damaged, and off for a long time, can’t control: the change of ac contactor or dc relay.
& have spent(the original title: all kinds of machine tool spindle fault solution! Learn to earn!) (source: to check the net)

Based on state of the nc machine tool spindle reliability evaluation

The health status of nc machine tool spindle is directly related to the quality of the product and enterprise’s safety production.According to the condition monitoring data of nc machine tool spindle, built a hidden Makov model is based on observation sequence model for reliability evaluation.该模型提出了Spea「m an权重分析方法 ,通过对多性能指标观测序列及设备健康状态的Spearman秩相关分析获得各性能指标的定量权重 ,体现了各性能指标在设备健康评价中的贡献。并利用矢量量化及加权分析将多性能观测序列转换为单观测序列,通过隐M arkov模型获得设备状态变迁概率 ,从而实现对设备的可靠性评估。最后将上述模型应用于某型数控机床主轴的可靠性评估 ,模型评价结果与场数据比较吻合,证明了该模型的有效性 。
   关键字:数控机床;主轴;隐Markov模型;可靠性评估;Spearman权重
   0.引言
   数控机床是加工零件的机器 ,广泛运用于国家重点企业。为了保证数控机床的安全运行,必须对其进行可靠性评估。可靠性评估的方法比较多,从设备故障角度出发 ,Keller等m和 Das K等 H分 别通过分析数控系统和机械设备故障维修数据建立可靠性评估模型。针对统计数据模型样本小和不准确问题 ,有学者引人贝叶斯理论 ,综合验前信息和样本信息 ,能减小样本容量和提高准确性,Jason R.W等P1应用贝叶斯理论方法对数控机床进行可靠性评估。但该方法没有考虑设备缓慢劣化的过程,不能揭示设备失效本质。因此 ,Lu等立线性退化数据的模型和分析了HCI退化形式 ;吴军基于性能参数评估了数控装备在一个加工周期内的服役可靠性。为分析出设备故 障的原因、模式 、机理 、部位和频率等方面 , 通过建立设备的故障树和故障模式影响分析表 ,Pickarc F和张国军等分别建立M -FM EA模型和提出基于二元决策图故障树可靠性方法,得到故障树的不可靠度表达式。但完整故障树和故障模式影响分析表要求对设备基本组成和运行原理是否熟悉,对分析人员的现 场经验要求很高 。
   以上方法的评估结果主要基于批量产品整体的可靠性水平 ,但不能体现由于操作、加工、维护、环境等不同而造成的个体实际差异。因此,欧健51和118118丨-111;11等从设备状态角度分析,分别建立Markov过程的柴油机监控系统可靠性评估方法和应用 Markov模拟刀具磨损过程。但是马尔科夫分析存在状态真实值与状态观测值不一致问题,而隐Markov模型能够很好地对状态间的跳转进行描述 ,将外在表现的特征和内在蕴含的状态联起来,O cak、Purushotham[11_1l 和罗锡梁[13^ 隐 Markov 模型fe用到轴承和大型变压器的故障诊断 ;张春良M和熊尧、吴军等P句提出基于隐Markov模型的设备性能退化建模与分析的评估方法;Camci M和邓超、孙耀宗等#_211分别利用基于多性能参数 、多观测序列隐Markov模型评估了数控机床 钻头和Z 轴滚珠丝杠的健康状态。然而对于描述设备健康状态的多观测序列,由于不 同指标对设备劣化程度的表达通常是不一致的,因此在 利用多性能指标进行健康综合评价时应给予不同的重视程度,但在上述研究中都忽略了该 问 题,从而影响了评估结果的准确性。因此,本文通过对多性能指标观测序列及设备健康状态的Spearman秩相关分析获得各性能指标的定量权重,从而体现了不同性能指标在设备健康评价中的重要度。并利用矢量加权将多性能观测序列转换为单观测序列,应用于基于隐Markov模型的数控机床主轴可靠性评估 。
   1.基于状态的可靠性评估模型
   1.1 隐Markov模型
   隐马尔科夫模型(H idden Markov M odel,HM M )是一种统 模型是由两个相互关联的随机过程构成的一种双重随机模型;有限个状态转移的隐式随机过程( Markov链 )、与 M ark o v^中每个状态相关的观测序列的显式随机过程,其中,观测序列的结果可测可见, 而状态转移不可测不可见,只能通过观测序列的结果来体现,观测序列与状态之间通过概率分布相关联。标准隐Markov模型通常可由一个五元组表示:
 
  在机床的运行过程中,为了保证设备或部件的安全运行 ,现场工作人员需要对机床健康状态进行评估。然而机床的健康状态并不是一个直观可见可测的指标,通常是通过对多个性能指标的劣化程度来综合描述机床的健康程度。比如机床的工装夹具,夹紧气检压力 、松开气检压力和定位面气检压力这3个指标可共同反映工装夹具的工作状态,当这3个指标中的任何一个出现异常时,都意味着工装夹具的性能出现劣化趋势。因此,我们可以将数控机床的健康状态和性能指标分别看做HMM模型中的隐状态和可观测值,健康状态和性能指标的映射关系可看做观察值概率矩阵 ,从而可以通过HMM模型实现对数控机床的可靠性评估。
   1.2 矢量量化
   由于机床的健康状态不是一个可测的指标,通常可 以根据经验采用一个离散的变量序列来映射其不同的劣化程度。通常,健康状态等级可定义为:
 
  量化指标 。为便于HMM模型中的计算分析 ,需要将性 能指标进行矢量量化处理成为离散型的状态变量。根据数控机床的运行规则要求或现场经验 ,每项性能指标都设置了一个阈值范围 ,当性能指标处于阈值范围之内,表示设备状态可接受 ,反之 ,则认为设备存在隐患甚至面临失效的风险。性能指标等级一般可定义为:当指数呈单调变化时:
    1.3基于Spearm an的性能指标权重计算
   通常机床的健康状态由多个性能指标来综合描述 , 然而在实际运行中每个性能指标与设备或部件的整体健 康状态的相关性一般不同,即权重不同。对于权重大的性能指标 ,其劣化往往标志着整体设备或部件的劣化 ,而对于权重较小的性能指标 ,其劣化对机床整体或部件造成 的健康影响有限。因此 ,准确获取性能指标的权重对于科 学评价机床或部件的健康状态具有重要意义。 由于机床 的健康状态是通过各性能指标的具体表现来体现,二者之间存在一定的映射关系,因此可将性能指标的权重分 析转换为性能指标与健康等级序列之间的相关度分析。
    1.4多观测序列的转换
   在典型的HMM模型中观测序列是一个单行能指标序列,而数控机床的观测序列通常是多性能指标序列,且每个性能指标不同的劣化程度导致不同的整体健康状态,因此,多性能指标观测序列不能直接应用于HMM模型。本文将利用权重将数控机床的多性能指标观测序列量化转换为单性能指标序列。在上文中已经通过Spearman秩相关性算法获 得了各性能指标的权重 ,因此 , 在综合考虑各性能指标对总体健康状态影响的基础上,可以得到不同时刻的加权可观测值序列:
    2.基于多指标加权隐M arkov模型的数控机床主轴可靠性评估分析
   某型号汽油发动机缸体缸盖生产线上的数控机床(CBM 2180B)主轴结构如图2所示,该机床主轴主要用于镗曲轴孔和铰销孔。根据机床运行手册、现场调研及故障树分析,建立主轴的性能指标向量:近端端面跳动 、远端端面跳动和拉刀力。图2中,刀具夹紧装置处的力为拉刀力,采用拉刀测力计测量 ,主轴上面夹紧刀具加工工件一侧的跳动为远端端面跳动,另外一侧的跳动为近端端面跳动,分别用百分表打检棒在远端和近端测跳动。由于机床主轴的性能劣化速度较慢寿命一般可以达到3a,因此,主轴主要采取离线点检方式进行日常监测,正常点检间隔为3^月,强化点检间隔为1个月。
 
  表1为自2013 年5月到2015年9月CBM2180BITL床主轴的点检数据。根据机床运行手册 ,主轴近端端面跳动、远端端面跳动和拉刀力的阈值范围分别为 :[0,0.005]、[0,0.030]和 [31,5 9 ]。因此 ,本文根据阈值范围将各性能指标划分为3个状态区间 ,如表2所 示 。根据经验 ,可建立主轴各个性能指标观测序列与健康状态等级的映射规则,如表3所示 。其中 ,健康等级中的1、2 、3 、4分别对应优良 、一般 、劣化、故障4个等级。根据式(1 1 )和式 (1 2 )分别计算出相关系数 、权重如表4所示 。根据表3划分的状态区间及矢量量化规则 ,通过对性能指标的观测序列进行加权矢量分析后得到的观测序列 及其等级划分如表5和表6所示 。
   表1 主轴检测参数记录表 
表2 性能指标状态分类
   根据计算结果和经验判断划分观测状态等级如表6所示 。因此 ,利用矢量量化模型计算转化成加权可观测序 列 为 :0 * = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 24 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 4 5 5 5]〇 设初始模型参数为ff0={l,〇,0,〇M〇和 如 下 :
 表3 主轴各性能指标及健康状态等级映射规则
 
表4 各个性能指标相关系数和权重
   迁曲线图及主轴可靠度变化曲线分布如图3、图4。通过图3中的主轴状态概率变迁可以直观地看出机床主轴在不同时期健康状态的变化趋势。在初始阶段 ,机床主轴处于“优良 ”状态的概率为1随着时间的推移,机床主轴逐渐开始劣化 , 其处于“优良 ”状态的概率不断下降 ,而 “一般”、“劣化 ”、“故障 ”的概率不断增加。在前7个月 ,主轴处于 “优良 ”状态的概 率 最大 ,从第7个月到第3个月 ,主轴处于“一 般 ”的概率最大,第13个月到第18个月 ,主轴出现“劣化 ”状态的概率最大,从18个月以后,主轴出现“故障 ”的概率最大。但是由于我们将主轴状态分为了4个等级,根据式( 14 ),尽管从第 18个月开始主轴出现 “故障 ”的概率最大,但是并不意味着此时主轴开始失效。根据最大隶属度原则故障 ”的概率大于其他3个状态的概率之和时 ,才认为主轴失效 ,在图4 中这个时刻对应的是第23个月。而根据表6 的矢量量化转化成观测序表及表5主轴各性能指标及健康状态等级映射规则,可知主轴在第27个月开始进入故障状态 ,该判断结果与HMM模型计算结果基本吻合,且HMM模型计算结果趋于保守,由此验证了本模型的正确性。
   表5 矢量量化转化成观测序列表 

表6 观测状态等级表
    3.结语

 
 
  针对目前可靠性评估中未考虑性能指标之间重要度问题,本文提出了一种基于多序列加权隐Markov模型的可靠性评估模型。首先确定多个性能指标向量,划分指标的状态区间进行矢量量化,其次建立了各性能指标及健康状态等级映射规则,引人Spearman秩 相关分析法 ,计算出不同性能指标之间的重要度 ,通过矩阵转化和矢量量化得到了加权可观测序列 ,然后将该序列代人隐Markov 模型训练获得稳定模型 ,并进行状态可靠性评估获得状态概率曲线和可靠度曲线。将本文的模型结合某型机床主轴2013年5月到2015年9月现场实际数据,状态概率变迁图分析,根据最大隶属度原则,得到主轴的各种不同状态会相继出现,可靠度变化图表明,主轴会在第23个月发生故障,通过实际主轴点检数据得到主轴在第27个月开始进人故障状态,结果比较吻合并且趋于保守〇本文的研究表明 ,基于多序列加权隐Markov模型是可靠性评估的一条新途径,研究结果可以为数控机床主轴可靠性的提高提供参考。
   (原标题:基于状态的数控机床主轴可靠性评估) (来源:华中科技大学)

高档数控机床创新点亮\u201C中国智造\u201D

8年多时间,累计申请发明专利3956项,立项国家及行业标准407项,研发新产品、新技术2951项,中央财政资金投入91.14亿元,新增产值约706亿元,在行业研究机构、重点企业建设了18项创新能力平台、部署了70个示范工程,培养创新型人才5500多人,攻克“卡脖子”难题!打破国外技术垄断!实现“零”的突破…& hellip;  日前,在科技部会同工业和信息化部组织举行的“高档数控机床与基础制造装备”国家科技重大专项成果发布会上,传来好消息—& ndash;& ndash;我国数控机床专项取得重大成果。  标准“零”突破  国产装备增强综合国力  数控机床是工业的“工作母机”,如果把现代工业看作摩天大厦的话,那么高档数控机床与基础制造装备则是这座大厦的基石。  发展高档数控机床既是工业和信息化领域供给侧结构性改革、加快推进制造强国建设的客观需要,也是实现军民融合深度发展战略、确保国家安全的紧迫要求。  专项牵头实施单位工业和信息化部装备工业司副司长罗俊杰介绍,“十一五”期间,我国航空航天、船舶制造、能源电力、国防军工、汽车和工程机械等行业迅猛发展,对大型、重型、复合、高精度高档数控机床的需求急剧增加。当时,我国在航空航天、船舶、发电设备制造、汽车制造领域与国外存在着巨大差距,特别是高档机床与基础制造装备大多依赖进口,亟待投入研发、展开布局。通过数控机床专项的实施,至“十二五”末期,我国机床企业的产品设计制造能力得到显著提升,高档数控机床和装备的国际竞争力不断增强。  据中国工程院院士、专项技术总师卢秉恒介绍,通过数控机床专项的着力布局和有效实施,机床行业标准和技术规范逐步得到完善。2016年底,我国自主提出的用于检测五轴联动机床精度的S形试件标准已通过国际标委会审定,实现了我国在高档数控机床检测领域标准“零”的突破。  我国数控机床主机平均无故障时间从专项实施前的400~500小时已普遍提升至1200小时,部分产品达到2000小时以上。汽车大型覆盖件自动冲压生产线等10多类设备已达到国际领先水平,高速龙门五轴加工中心等20多类产品基本达到国际先进水平,精密卧式加工中心形成具有自主知识产权的柔性制造系统核心技术。  数控机床专项的总体目标是:到2020年,形成高档数控机床与基础制造装备主要产品的自主开发能力,总体技术水平进入国际先进行列,部分产品国际领先;建立起完整的功能部件研发和配套能力;形成以企业为主体、产学研用相结合的技术创新体系;培养和建立一支高素质的研究开发队伍;航空航天、汽车等重点领域制造所需要的高档数控机床与基础制造装备80%立足国内;研究开发出若干具有原创性的技术和产品,形成这一领域内自主创新在一些点上的突破。  技术创新  关键部件实现批量配套  数控系统是机床装备的“大脑”,是决定数控机床功能、性能、可靠性、成本价格的关键因素,也是制约我国数控机床行业发展的瓶颈。而基础薄弱、“Lack of brain and heart & throughout;一直是“Made in China & throughout;的短板。数控系统、伺服电机、伺服驱动等是制造装备最重要的关键基础部件。卢秉恒说,“实现‘Made in China 2025 & rsquo;的目标,形成‘中国智造’的核心竞争力,离不开数控系统,包括伺服驱动、伺服电机等关键技术的创新。Throughout the &;  经过8年连续攻关,我国数控机床领域突破了一批关键核心技术,破解多项“卡脖子”问题,先后为核电、大飞机等国家重大专项和新型战机、运载火箭等一批国家重点工程提供了关键制造装备,部分产品达到了国际先进水平并进入发达国家市场。  数控机床专项部署实行全产业链布局,国产数控系统实现部分技术的原创超越(如嵌入式一体化数控装置硬件平台等)。企业掌握了数控系统的软硬件平台设计与批量生产技术,在多通道、多轴联动、高速插补等关键技术指标方面达到国际主流产品技术水平。至2016年,数控机床专项支持研发的高档数控系统已累计销售1000余套,国内市场占有率由专项启动前的不足1%提高到了5%左右。  在数控机床专项的支持下,科德数控股份有限公司在母公司大连光洋科技集团的领导下,研制出多种类型的系列化五轴联动高档数控机床,有力地保障了国产航空发动机机匣、核电汽轮机叶片等关键零部件的生产,实现S910燃气轮机叶片首次在全国产五轴卧式车铣复合加工中心上完成铣削精加工。  高档数控系统主要技术指标已基本达到国际水平,国内市场占有率由不足1%提高到了5%左右,成功实现了在航空航天等领域的批量示范应用,对维护我国国防信息安全具有重要意义。  中档数控系统实现了批量生产,国内市场占有率从10%提高到25%。形成了3家产业化生产基地,专项支持的数控系统合计已实现销售近40亿元。滚珠丝杠、导轨、动力刀架等关键功能部件在精度、可靠性等关键指标上已接近国际先进水平。其中,滚动功能部件在中高端数控机床市场占有率由大约5%提高到20%,迫使进口产品降价20%~50%。  服务用户  装备保障能力不断提升  新一代大型运载火箭长征五号、国产大飞机C919、我国第一艘货运飞船天舟一号…& hellip;这些耳熟能详的国家重大科技进展的背后,离不开数控机床的飞速发展。  以五轴加工中心为代表的高档数控机床,在飞机典型结构件、航天复杂与精密结构件、飞航导弹发动机零部件等领域实现批量示范应用,为大飞机、新型战机、探月工程等国家重大专项和重点工程提供了关键制造装备。  据卢秉恒介绍,8万吨大型模锻压力机和万吨级铝板张力拉伸机等“大国重器”的成功研制,填补了国内航空领域大型关重件整体成形技术空白;航天领域,大型贮箱成套焊接装备成功应用于长征五号等新一代火箭研制,建立了首条采用国产加工中心和数控车削中心的生产示范线,已应用于新一代运载火箭、对接机构、探月工程差动机构等100余种、1万余件关键复杂零部件的加工,取得了显著的经济效益与社会效益。  在汽车制造领域,作为行业内承担国家科技项目最多的企业之一,济南二机床通过项目实施,高端智能制造技术实现连续突破,在高端市场竞争中占据主动,打破国外技术垄断,不仅满足国内重点行业装备需求,并成线出口欧美、东南亚等海外汽车主机厂,为通用、福特等国际知名汽车企业提供海外总承包交钥匙工程,被誉为“世界三大数控冲压装备制造商”One of the.依托重大专项成果转化,福特汽车美国4个工厂,先后4次订购济二9条大型全自动快速冲压生产线。5年来已经成功出口9条生产线,国内市场占有率超过70%,全球市场占有率超过30%。  目前,济南二机床自主研制的机器人全自动冲压生产线、大型全自动快速送料冲压生产线、重型多工位机械压力机、伺服冲压生产线等产品与国际最先进技术同步,已经装备国内各汽车制造集团,包括通用、福特、日产、大众、路虎、沃尔沃等合资品牌及所有自主品牌在内。  有了高标准,更需要有高质量的产品。虽然中国的高档数控机床发展有了长足进步,但也面临着差距和风险。工信部装备工业司副司长罗俊杰说,下一步数控机床专项将着力攻克机床可靠性和精度保持性技术,加大应用验证和示范,满足国家战略新需求,为全面实施“Throughout 2025 & made in China;提供支撑。密切关注智能化、网络化发展趋势,围绕机床行业全产业链布局,持续聚焦航空航天、汽车两大重点服务领域,搭建机床行业与军工、汽车等重点领域的产需对接平台,着力补齐重大装备短板,推动制造业战略性转型升级。  罗俊杰表示,还要进一步探索产业共性技术研究的长效机制,夯实技术研究和高端人才基础,继续加大落实专项研制设备制造过程的工艺验证和用户领域的示范应用,优化产品性能,提升可靠性、成套成组工艺和智能化水平。  目前,中国机床及装备产业的“航空母舰”已试水前行,假以时日,中国机床及装备产业“巨舰”将在世界经济的全球化大潮中迎风搏浪。  (原标题:高档数控机床创新点亮“中国智造”)(来源:《中国政协报》)